welding and welding procedures , cross country pipelines , downhill technique ,off shore structures techniques ,plant shutdown and maintenance ,system documentation safety,system documentation quality,inspection surveillance, powerplant procedures , corrosion and prevention techniques , protective coating ,heat treatment , continuos improvement-kaizen,planning and scheduling , failure analysis , audit-system verfication
welding and welding procedures, cross country pipelines, downhill technique, off shore structures techniques, plant shutdown and maintenance, system documentation safety, system documentation quality, inspection surveillance, powerplant procedures, corrosion and prevention techniques, protective coating, heat treatment, continuos improvement-kaizen, planning and scheduling, failure analysis, audit-system verfication
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HEAT TREATMENT  

NORMALIZING / ANNEALING / STRESS RELIEVING

COMPONENTS UNDER GOING FORGING, ROLLING GENERALLY UNDERGO HEAT TREATMENT EITHER NORMALIZING OR ANNEALING SO THAT AFTER HEAT TREATMENT THESE COMPONENTS WILL REGAINS ITS GRAIN ORIENTATION PATTERN AND PROPERTIES REMAIN THE SAME AS ORIGINAL.

HEAT OF THE ARC CAUSE THERMAL STRESSES AND INCREASE THE HARDENING NEAR THE WELD ZONE THEREBY REDUCING THE DUCTILITY OF THE HAZ ( HEAT AFFECTED ZONE ), HENCE CALLS FOR STRESS RELIEVING

TO IMPROVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES / MACHINABILITY / DUCTILITY
TO REMOVE CHEMICAL NON CONFORMITY
TO ALTER THE MICRO STRUCTURE
TO RELIEVE THE INTERNAL STRESSES.   

HARDENING / TEMPERING

BASED ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION SOME STEELS HAVING ALLOYING ELEMENTS LIKE C , Cr, Mo, Ni OR V, THE TENSILE STRENGTH AND YIELD POINT (ELASTICITY) CAN BE INCREASED FURTHER BY HARDENING & TEMPERING.

IN HARDENING PROCESS THE COMPONENTS ARE HEATED IN A FURNACE ABOVE THE LOWER CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND THEN QUENCHED IN BRINE SOLUTION OR OIL MEDIUM. TEMPERING IS THEN CARRIED OUT BASED ON THE HARDNESS ACHIEVED AFTER HARDENING. THIS PROCESSES ARE CRITICAL FOR COMPONENTS LIKE PINS, HSFG BOLTS WHEN MADE OUT OF EN SERIES MATERIALS.
MANY FAILURES HAVE TAKEN PLACE DUE TO IMPROPER HARDENING & TEMPERING .

CASE HARDENING:

IN ORDER TO HAVE TOUGH CORE AND HIGH HARDNESS ON THE SURFACE THE CASE HARDENING PROCESSES ARE RECOMMENDED.

CARBONIZING
NITRIDING
CYANIDING

VCS HAVE INVESTIGATED AND GIVEN RIGHT SOLUTIONS TO MANY OF THE ABOVE PROCESSES IN ORDER TO HAVE STANDARD UNIFORM PRACTICE.

welding and welding procedures, cross country pipelines, downhill technique, off shore structures techniques, plant shutdown and maintenance, system documentation safety, system documentation quality, inspection surveillance, powerplant procedures, corrosion and prevention techniques, protective coating, heat treatment, continuos improvement-kaizen, planning and scheduling, failure analysis, audit-system verfication
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welding and welding procedures, cross country pipelines, downhill technique, off shore structures techniques, plant shutdown and maintenance, system documentation safety, system documentation quality, inspection surveillance, powerplant procedures, corrosion and prevention techniques, protective coating, heat treatment, continuos improvement-kaizen, planning and scheduling, failure analysis, audit-system verfication
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welding and welding procedures, cross country pipelines, downhill technique, off shore structures techniques, plant shutdown and maintenance, system documentation safety, system documentation quality, inspection surveillance, powerplant procedures, corrosion and prevention techniques, protective coating, heat treatment, continuos improvement-kaizen, planning and scheduling, failure analysis, audit-system verfication
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